In collaboration with UN Women, the ATHENA Network, AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition (AVAC) and Salamander Trust have undertaken a multistage review of the global status of women’s access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). This global review takes place during a turning point in the HIV epidemic where increasing focus is placed on strategic investments in health. This review is informed by a gender-responsive and human rights-based framework to explore the micro, meso and macro level factors that impact women’s experiences of treatment availability and their decision-making processes around its uptake. Findings presented in this report address the interplay of structural factors that affect women’s overall access to health and resources. The analysis encompasses factors including – but not limited to – poverty, economic security, decision-making, stigma and discrimination. Approaching the construct of treatment access from a gender-responsive and human rights-based approach yields valuable insights into the availability, affordability, acceptability and quality of components. This knowledge is critical to the development of effective, women-owned and women-led care, treatment and support programmes.