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HIV and Cervical Cancer

Epidemics of HIV and HPV are inherently interconnected, and when they meet in the context of weak health systems, their effects serve to amplify each other. Gender inequality, intimate partner violence, inequitable laws and harmful traditional practices reinforce power dynamics between men and women and set up a challenging environment for...


2017 PEPFAR Latest Global Results

The latest update from PEPFAR shares many successes from their Global Results, including their DREAMS program to prevent HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women.


Sexual partnership age pairings and risk of HIV acquisition in rural South Africa

This study aims to move beyond ‘relative age gaps’ to address how much ‘specific age groups’ contribute to HIV risk in men and women in South Africa.


HIV/AIDS National Strategic Plans of Sub-Saharan African Countries: An Analysis for Gender Equality and Sex-Disaggregated HIV Targets

This analysis reveals a need to set disagreggated target to align an effective HIV response with gender equality priorities.


Women's Rights in Africa

This publication provides a framework on women's rights, in the context of Africa. It goes on to conceptualize rights on equality between women and men, gender, intersectionality and multiple forms of discrimination, and more. The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (Maputo Protocol) is...


Friendship Networks and HIV Risk Among Young Women in South Africa

Friends may be an important influence for young women's risk of HIV infection as they serve as a medium to discuss norms about gender and sexuality and are a social network through which young women form sexual partnerships. In 2011, young women participating in a Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) trial in South Africa were asked about their...


Epidemic of Inequality: Women's Rights and HIV/AIDS in Botswana & Swaziland: An Evidence-Based Report on the Effects of Gender Inequity, Stigma, and Discrimination

Deeply entrenched gender inequities perpetuate the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Botswana and Swaziland, the two countries with the highest HIV prevalence in the world. The legal systems in both countries grant women lesser status than men, restricting property, inheritance, and other rights. Social, economic, and cultural practices create, enforce and...


Uptake of Family Planning Methods and Unplanned Pregnancies Among HIV-infected Individuals: A Cross-sectional Survey Among Clients at HIV Clinics in Uganda

Prevention of unplanned pregnancies among HIV-infected individuals is critical to the prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT), but its potential has not been fully utilized by PMTCT programmes. The uptake of family planning methods among women in Uganda is low, with current use of family planning methods estimated at 24%, but...


Drugs, Sex, Gender-based Violence, and the Intersection of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic with Vulnerable Women in South Africa

Recent innovative research has identified key factors that put vulnerable South African women at risk of HIV/AIDS and gender-based violence, including high-risk patterns of alcohol abuse and sexual partnering, gender norms that place men in control in sexual relationships, low educational levels and limited access to employment, poor health care,...


Hidden in the Mealie Meal: Gender-Based Abuses and Women’s HIV Treatment in Zambia

While acknowledging the significant overall progress made by the Zambian government in scaling up HIV treatment generally, this report documents how the government has fallen short of its international legal obligations to combat violence and discrimination against women. The report details abuses that obstruct women’s ability to start and adhere...


Understanding Adolescent Girls' Protection Strategies Against HIV: An Exploratory Study in Urban Lusaka

This publication provides a descriptive analysis of how adolescent girls and young women construct notions of risk and safety within the context of HIV/AIDS, and what strategies they develop to protect themselves. The study is based on data from interviews held with 821 young women aged from 15-24 from four communities of urban Lusaka, and...


At Risk: Rights Violations of HIV-Positive Women in Kenyan Health Facilities

This report vividly illustrates the failure of the Kenyan government to care for women living with HIV. At healthcare centers across Kenya, these women encounter physical and verbal abuse and are subject to discriminatory standards of care. They often cannot access antiretroviral treatment and their rights to informed consent and confidentiality...


A multilevel analysis of effect of neighbourhood and individual wealth status on sexual behaviour among women: Evidence from Nigeria 2003 Demographic and Health Survey

This research article describes the results of an analysis of the 2003 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey to examine factors associated with extra-marital sex among women in Nigeria and investigate how much variation in reported extra-marital sex can be attributed to individual- and community-level factors.


HIV/AIDS and Gender Training: A Toolkit for Policy and Senior Level Decision Makers

This toolkit is a demonstration of the importance National AIDS Control Council (NACC) places on taking on board gender issues in HIV and AIDS in prevention, care, mitigation of social impacts on families, human rights and economic impact of the scourge on the country's economy. The toolkit offers an opportunity to policy and senior level decision...


In Coastal Tanzania, A Vicious Spiral of HIV/AIDS, Poverty, Gender Inequity, and Natural Resource Degradation

Small fishing and farming villages dot the rural landscape along the Indian Ocean on Tanzania's northern coast. Local men have fished for subsistence in this area for generations, while women have traditionally managed households and acted as primary caregivers.


Sexual Behavior and STI/HIV Status among Adolescents in Rural Malawi: An Evaluation of the Effect of Interview Mode on Reporting

This paper summarizes the results from an experiment conducted with unmarried young women aged 15-21 in rural southern Malawi, during which respondents were randomly assigned to either an audio computer-assisted self-interview or a conventional face-to-face interview. In addition, biomarkers were collected for HIV and three STIs: gonorrhea,...


Acquiring Knowledge: Integrating Family Planning with Antiretroviral Therapy

This project brief looks at a pilot project conducted by the ACQUIRE Project to integrate family planning within HIV care and treatment services. ACQUIRE worked with The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) in Uganda to implement a number of strategies, such as: * Determining the fertility desires and reproductive health issues of HIV-positive women...


Using VCT statistics from Kenya in understanding the association between gender and HIV

This paper demonstrates the importance of utilising official statistics from the voluntary counselling and testing centres (VCT) to determine the association between gender and HIV infection rates in Kenya. The study design adopted was a record based survey of data collected from VCT sites in Kenya. Of those who were tested, significantly more...


Review of Progress Secretary-General's Task Force on Women, Girls and HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa, 2003-2007

This conference room paper provided as a reference document at the 20th Meeting of the UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board discussion of policy guidance to address gender issues presents the preliminary findings of a review of progress in strengthening national AIDS programmes for women and girls in the nine countries that participated in the...


Gaining a Foothold: Tackling Poverty, Gender Inequality and HIV/AIDS in Africa

This paper examines poverty and social structures that may keep many women in Africa from being able to protect themselves from HIV.